Rivista n.33

153
12070
Le ADR nel sistema giuridico internazionale

La società di massa: critiche e contro-critiche

by Angelo Volpe

In questo lavoro Angelo Volpe si pone l’obiettivo di ricostruire la complessa topografia delle teorie (critiche) della società di massa, riesumando velocemente le rinomate posizioni di Max Horkheimer e Theodor W. Adorno, di Karl Mannheim e Charles Wright Mills, di Hannah Arendt e Emil Lederer, di William Kornhauser e Robert Ni­sbet e, da ultimo, quelle di David Riesman. Altrettanto spazio è stato inoltre riservato a quegli autori che hanno elaborato una vera e pro­pria contro-teoria della società di massa: le posizioni di Edward Shils, Daniel Bell, Talcott Parsons, Leon Bramson costituiscono, in­fatti, una poderosa reazione alle precedenti e imperanti teorie apoca­littiche.

Ma – come spesso accade – quando ci si vuole contrapporre, la volontà di differenziarsi porta a enfatizzazioni di segno contrario. Così, agli eccessi di una tesi sono in qualche modo seguiti gli eccessi di una antitesi. E su questo terreno, il dialogo tra i critici e i contro-critici è un dialogo tra sordi: ciò che per i secondi è tutto un susse­guirsi di eventi positivi, per i primi è la matrice di una serie di mali presenti e futuri.

Sempre in riferimento all’obiettivo di cui sopra, l’autore ha inoltre posto in essere, anche in forza delle nuove rifles­sioni sula nostra contemporaneità, una sorta di bilancio, indicando le piste lungo le quali possa essere rinnovata l’analisi della società di massa, frettolosamente soppiantata dalla sociologia della differenzia­zione sociale.

In this work Angelo Volpe aims to reconstruct the complex topography of the mass society theories (critiques), quickly recollecting the positions of Max Horkheimer and Theodor W. Adorno, of Karl Mannheim and Charles Wright Mills, of Hannah Arendt and Emil Lederer, of William Kornhauser and Robert Nisbet and of David Riesman. Likewise, the same attention has been devoted to those authors who have developed a counter-theory to the mass society: the positions of Edward Shils, Daniel Bell, Talcott Parsons and Leon Bramson, are a strong reaction to the previous apocalyptic theories. As it often happens, the juxtaposition, the willingness of differentiation, brings to the exaggeration of the contrary sign. In this field, the dialogue between critics and counter-critics is a conversation between deaf people: what for the counter-critics is a succession of positive events, for the critics is the mold for all the bad events, present and future. Referring to the aim, the author has fostered an investigation, indicating the routes along which it is possible to renovate the analysis of the mass society, hastily supplanted by the sociology of the social differentiation.


Le ADR nel sistema giuridico internazionale

by Clara Mariconda

Nell’ordinamento internazionale la conciliazione rappresenta un valido strumento di gestione della conflittualità eventualmente insorgente tra Stati. Nell’esaminare le diverse esperienze internazionali pare opportuno sia, analizzare preliminarmente i diversi metodi ADR conosciuti ed applicati negli Stati Uniti d’America, dove i sistemi di risoluzione alternativa delle controversie sono assai diffusi già da tempo sia, analizzare le due Raccomandazioni della Commissione Europea in materia di conciliazione a tutela dei consumatori: la n. 98/257/CE, pubblicata sulla Gazzetta Ufficiale della Comunità Europea n. L115/31/98, “concernente i principi applicabili agli organi responsabili per la risoluzione extragiudiziale delle controversie in materia di consumo” e la n. 2001/310/CE, pubblicata sula Gazzetta Ufficiale della Comunità Europea n. 109/56/2001, “sui principi applicabili agli organi extragiudiziali che partecipano alla risoluzione consensuale delle controversie in materia di consumo”. Dallo studio evince come le norme dell’ordinamento giuridico comunitario internazionale devono senza dubbio trovare applicazione  prima all’inter-no degli ordinamenti giuridici nazionali che, integrando il diritto di difesa con l’adozione dei metodi ADR, sono in  grado di abbattere le barriere economiche e geografiche che si frappongono tra i singoli e il loro diritto di agire in giudizio.

– In international law, conciliation is a valid instrument for managing any conflict that may arise between states. In examining the different international experiences, it seems appropriate to first analyze the different ADR methods known and applied in the United States of America, where the systems of alternative dispute resolution have long been widespread for some time, analyze the two Recommendations of the European Commission on conciliation for the protection of consumers: the no. 98/257 / CE, published in the Official Journal of the European Community n. L115 / 31/98, “concerning the principles applicable to the bodies responsible for the out-of-court settlement of consumer disputes” and the n. 2001/310 / CE, published in the Official Journal of the European Community n. 109/56/2001, “on the principles applicable to out-of-court bodies participating in the consensual resolution of consumer disputes”. The study shows that the rules of the international community legal system must undoubtedly be applied first within the national legal systems that, by integrating the right of defense with the adoption of ADR methods, are able to break down economic and geographical barriers that stand between individuals and their right to take legal action.

Razionalità ed ‘espressività’ nei comportamenti umani.
La prospettiva socio-antropologica di A.M. Di Nola
by Angelo Zotti

– L’intento di questa breve riflessione è offrire una lettura sociologica di alcuni brani antologici selezionati nell’ambito della vasta opera dell’antropologo A.M Di Nola. Oltre a un repertorio di situazioni
già codificate dalla scienza antropologica, infatti, gli scritti di Di Nola sembrerebbe costituire anche, a nostro sommesso avviso, un’interessante rassegna di comportamenti sociali, individuali e collettivi.
L’obiettivo del contributo è pertanto quello di utilizzare metodologicamente la categoria weberiana dell’azione sociale al fine di analizzare, di tali comportamenti umani, il contenuto (attivo\passivo) e la
natura (più o meno razionale). Identificheremo allora il comportamento attivo con l’azione intraprendente, quella a cui ricorrono gli uomini per vincere la paura di ciò che appare ancora sconosciuto e
misterioso, ed il comportamento passivo (il ‘tralasciare di agire’), invece, con l’azione adattiva, la più idonea a spiegare perché si subisce una condizione imposta dall’esterno. A sua volta, la razionalità degli uomini può manifestarsi, a parer nostro, come orientamento a valori (si pensi al peccato di hybris) o come razionalità strumentale (ad es. pratiche magiche per ottenere il favore degli dei). L’irrazionalità, al
contrario, si traduce in forme di ‘razionalizzazione’, ovvero nel tentativo di giustificare un fatto negativo (ad esempio, attraverso il capro espiatorio); nella maggiore enfasi sulla propria espressività (si pensi, nel satanismo, all’esaltazione della forza primigenia dell’uomo); o, infine, nell’atteggiamento fatalista (si consideri, nella religione, l’idea e la percezione della propria dipendenza creaturale).

– This article is focused on a sociological interpretation of some selected works of famous Italian anthropologist AM Di Nola. Obviously Di Nola’s works are related to anthropological analysis of human behaviors but, in our view, they also contain descriptions of social behaviors; of their individualistic motivations and their close relationships with group dynamics. Our aim is to describe and analyze these behaviors using methodological instruments such as weberian heuristic category of ‘social action’. We want analyze the content (active or passive) and the deep nature of action (its rationality).
From this point of view, we consider an active behavior as a proactive action; in other words, we are going to consider a way to act in order to overcome fear of mysterious and unknown social word. At contrary, we assume that a passive behavior is above all an omission. In the latter case we utilize the concept of adaptive action for explain the reasons of human submission to an external decision. In addition,
we argue that there are two main forms of rationality : value rationality (for example, hubris sin) and instrumental rationality (for example, magical practices to gain gods favors). At contrary, irrationality could appear as a form of rationalization, for justify negative and dramatic events (…..); as an affective behavior (for example, Satanism and its emphasis on primal strength of men; finally, as fatalistic attitude (for example, in religion, subjective perception of own creatural dependency).

Rivista Italiana di Conflittologia n. 33 scarica pdf

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