Rivista n. 40

Il conflitto tra utile e dilettevole. Una nota a margine sul futuro della democrazia

di Antimo Cesaro

L’articolo, attraverso il metodo dell’arco storico e dell’osservatorio epigonale (ricavato dagli scritti di Giulio M. Chiodi), cerca di indagare le diverse cause proposte per interpretare la crisi della democrazia post-moderna. In particolare, per cercare di spiegare – e nel contempo attualizzare – l’antico concetto greco di “oclocrazia”, si prospetta un’analisi della “catastrofe democratica” da un particolare punto di vista: quello del decadimento culturale.

The following article, through the method of the historical timeframe and the epigonal observatory (derived from the writings of Giulio M. Chiodi), seeks to investigate the different causes proposed to analyze the crisis of post-modern democracy. In order to try to explain – and at the same time update – the ancient Greek concept of “oclocracy”, an analysis of the “democratic catastrophe” is proposed from the particular point of view of the cultural decay.

Caratteristiche e dinamiche della violenza degli adolescenti nei confronti dei genitori                                                                              

di Sandra Sicurella

Il tema della violenza agita dagli adolescenti in famiglia nei confronti dei propri genitori è un ambito poco esplorato dalle ricerche italiane. Alle lacune sul piano empirico si accompagna un insufficiente approfondimento del fenomeno anche dal punto di vista teorico. Questo contributo riguarda la realizzazione di una ricerca di tipo qualitativo volta ad indagare le caratteristiche di questa forma di violenza che sconvolge gli equilibri, in alcuni casi già precari, di numerose famiglie italiane. Lo scopo di questo studio è pertanto quello di delineare un quadro del fenomeno, focalizzando l’attenzione sulle caratteristiche e sulla eventuale corrispondenza delle evidenze già emerse nella ricerca internazionale. Per delineare il profilo dell’adolescente violento, seguendo un approccio metodologico qualitativo, sono state raccolte delle interviste semistrutturate sottoposte a testimoni significativi. I risultati emersi conducono, nonostante alcune specificità, ad un sostanziale allineamento con le altre ricerche realizzate in contesti molto diversi da quello italiano. Si ritiene pertanto necessario individuare precocemente i fattori di rischio, cercare di intercettare il disagio e potenziare il lavoro di rete tra professionisti.

The subject of violence by adolescents in the family, in particular towards their parents, is an area that is little explored by Italian empirical research. The gaps at the empirical level, accompanied by insufficient in-depth study of the phenomenon from the theoretical point of view as well, seem to suggest that the phenomenon is not very extensive, with a small and negligible number of cases. This evidence is totally proven wrong by the professionals interviewed who, in most cases, deem that it is a problem on the rise, linked to family dynamics, personal experiences and the life stories of the family members. This contribution concerns an empirical study of a qualitative type aimed at investigating more in depth the characteristics of this form of violence which upsets the balances, in some cases already precarious, of numerous Italian families. The subject of violence by adolescents in the family, in particular towards their parents, is a little explored area by Italian empirical research. The aim of this study is to outline an overview of the phenomenon, focusing on the characteristics and the possible correspondence of the results already emerged in the international research. To outline the profile of the violent adolescent, following a qualitative approach, semi-structured interviews were subjected to stakeholders, experts and professionals of the sector.  The results revealed, despite some specificity, a substantial alignment with other researches, conducted in a very different context. A multi-disciplinary approach should therefore be associated with an early detection of risk factors and a strengthening of network among professionals.

Globalizzazione e transnazionalizzazione della giustizia                           

di Giovanna Palermo

La globalizzazione, variamente definita e interpretata, oltre ad aver impatto sul piano economico, politico, sociale e culturale mondiale impone necessariamente una riflessione sulle teorie della giustizia che, tarata su sistemi chiusi come gli Stati nazione, ora più che mai, chiede di uscire dalla dimensione locale a favore di quella globale, appunto.  Il concetto di giustizia globale non può più caratterizzarsi come l’applicazione e l’estensione internazionale di singole giustizie nazionali ma deve necessariamente prevedere una riformulazione delle questioni di libertà e uguaglianza, oltre che quelle identitarie e culturali all’interno dei singoli stati, nell’ottica del superamento di confini geopolitici e in virtù di una rinnovata visione globale. Solo grazie a questa sarà possibile riscoprire interessi sovranazionali comuni e dar vita a un autentico sentimento comunitario e a una rinnovata solidarietà e sentimento di giustizia, espressione di una reale esigenza di tutela delle persone.

Globalization, variously defined and interpreted, in addition to having an impact on the world economic, political, social and cultural level necessarily imposes a reflection on the theories of justice which , calibrated on closed systems such as nation States, now more than ever, requires an exit from local dimension in favor of the global one. The concept of global justice can no longer be characterized as the international application and extension of individual national judgments but must necessarily include a reformulation of the issues of freedom and equality, as well as those of identity and culture within individual states, with a view to overcoming geopolitical borders and by virtue of a renewed global vision. Only thanks to this will it be possible to rediscover common supranational interests and give life to an authentic community sentiment and a renewed solidarity and sentiment of justice, expression of a real need to protect people.

Usura, pandemia e composizione della crisi da sovraindebitamento       

di Pasquale Peluso

L’articolo intende esaminare il rapporto esistente tra condizione di sovraindebitamento del debitore e ricorso al credito illegale da parte di quest’ultimo per far fronte ai propri debiti, in particolar modo in momenti di crisi economica come quelli provocati dalla diffusione della pandemia da COVID-19. Invero, il sovraindebitamento è spesso causato da scelte sbagliate o da un uso non responsabile del denaro.  Dopo aver esaminato i vari fattori che possono spingere il soggetto a sovraindebitarsi o a far ricorso al prestito usurario, l’autore sofferma l’attenzione sui meccanismi che possono influenzare l’uso non responsabile del denaro ed, in particolar modo, sull’efficacia autopercepita che spinge il soggetto a scelte rischiose nella errata convinzione di riuscire a gestire l’esposizione debitoria o il fenomeno usurario. La decisione di ricorrere al credito illegale non è improvvisa ma, nella gran parte dei casi, è preceduta da un lungo periodo di sovraindebitamento. Fattori culturali e sociali possono giocare un ruolo importante insieme a quelli individuali nelle scelte del soggetto sovraindebitato. Quest’ultimo può provare per l’usurario un sentimento di riconoscenza per essersi offerto di risolvere i suoi problemi fin quando non prenderà atto che non è in grado di adempiere all’obbligazione usuraria. Per contro il contesto sociale non guarda all’usurato come una vittima di un reato ritenendolo causa del suo male. L’ordinamento italiano appresta diverse soluzioni per consentire al soggetto vittima di usura di inserirsi nell’economia legale. Il paper, esaminati i due rimedi offerti dalla L. 108/96 dei fondi di prevenzione e di solidarietà, sofferma l’attenzione sulla L. 3/12 sulla composizione delle crisi da sovraindebitamento. Questa disciplina, attraverso i tre istituti disciplinati e di cui può beneficare il soggetto sovraindebitato che rivesta particolari requisiti soggettivi ed oggettivi, risulta essere particolarmente innovativa sia per aver fatto proprio il principio del win-win, sia quello del fresh start che consente al soggetto sovraindebitato di ripartire nuovamente liberandosi, soprattutto, dal peso psicologico e sociale del sovraindebitamento. Per questo motivo tale norma, attraverso i diversi istituti disciplinati, a parere dell’autore, potrebbe costituire, a differenza delle altre soluzioni, un rimedio idoneo a risolvere il sovraindebitamento e prevenire l’ingresso nel mondo usurario.

The paper aims to examine the relationship between the condition of over-indebtedness and the use of illegal credit to pay off debts, especially during economic crisis such as those caused by the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. Indeed, over-indebtedness is often caused by bad choices or by non-responsible use of money. After examining the various factors that can determine the subject to over-indebted or to choose usurious loans, attention is focused on the mechanisms that can influence the non-responsible use of money and, in particular, on the self-perceived effectiveness that prompt the subject to risky choices in the mistaken belief of being able to manage debt exposure or the usurious phenomenon. The decision to choose illegal credit is not sudden but in most cases it is preceded by a long period of over-indebtedness. Cultural and social factors can play an important role together with individual ones in the choices of the over-indebted subject. The latter may feel for the usurer a feeling of gratitude for having offered to solve his problems until he acknowledges that he is unable to fulfill the usurious obligation. On the other hand, the social context does not think of the victim of usury as a victim of a crime but consider him to have only yourself to blame. The Italian legal system offers various solutions to allow the subject victim of usury to enter the legal economy. The paper, having examined the two remedies offered by Law 108/96 of the prevention and solidarity funds, focuses on Law 3/12 on the composition of over-indebtedness crises. This discipline, through the three regulated institutions, and which can benefit the over-indebted subject who has particular subjective and objective requirements, is particularly innovative both for having adopted the win-win principle and that of the fresh start principle which allows the over-indebted subject to start again by freeing themselves, above all, from the psychological and social burden of over-indebtedness. For this reason, this rule, through the various regulated institutions, in the opinion of the author, could constitute, unlike the other solutions, a suitable remedy to resolve over-indebtedness and prevent entry into the usurious market.

La percezione del rischio tra pericolo, paura e cultura 

di Michele Lanna

Nel mese di Marzo del 1986 comparve, sull’edizione inglese di «Soviet Life», un articolo dedicato all’impianto nucleare di Chernobyl e intitolato: Sicurezza totale. Solo un mese più tardi, tra il 26 e il 27 Aprile, nell’impianto si verificava quello che finora resta il più grave incidente nucleare della storia. E così lo sviluppo tecnico-scientifico, che aveva permesso la nascita dell’industrializzazione e il raggiungimento di un benessere economico senza precedenti, all’improvviso sembrava mostrare un lato oscuro: il connubio fra scienza, economia e potere metteva a rischio la stessa sopravvivenza dell’umanità. Questa breve riflessione riporta i passaggi salienti della discussione sul rischio, sulle sue possibili definizioni, sulla percezione e sulla consapevolezza pubblica dei pericoli e sulle possibili metodiche di gestione.

In March 1986, an article dedicated to the Chernobyl nuclear power plant appeared in the English edition of «Soviet Life» and it was entitled: Total security. Just a month later, between 26th and 27th April, in the plant occurred what is still the most serious nuclear accident in history. And so the technical-scientific development, which had allowed the birth of industrialization and the achievement of unprecedented economic well-being, suddenly seemed to show a dark side: the union of science, economy and power was putting at risk the very survival of the humankind. This brief reflection shows the salient passages of the discussion on the notion of risk, on its possible definitions, on the perception and public awareness of dangers and on the possible management methods of them.

Morte e rinascita. Osservazioni sui riti iniziatici della mafia nigeriana 

di Sara Lucrezi

L’articolo intende esaminare i riti di affiliazione alla mafia nigeriana, in Nigeria e in Italia. Il fenomeno del ‘cultismo’ appare infatti caratterizzato da una forte componente religiosa, che permea costantemente lo stato degli associati e che si esplicita nell’uso di rituali di iniziazione con cui vengono sanciti inviolabili accordi di fedeltà e segretezza. Il testo si propone pertanto di analizzare brevemente la natura di tali associazioni e la fisionomia dei relativi riti, per avanzare una lettura di questi ultimi, sulla scorta tanto dei rituali iniziatici tipici delle organizzazioni mafiose, quanto dei giuramenti rituali propri delle religioni tradizionali africane, e della loro funzione di esprimere rapporti di affiliazione a gruppi e leader.

The article aims to examine the rites of affiliation to the Nigerian mafia, in Nigeria and in Italy. The ‘cultism’ phenomenon appears indeed characterized by a strong religious component, which constantly permeates the status of the associates and which is explicit in the use of initiation rituals with which inviolable agreements of loyalty and secrecy are established. The text therefore will briefly analyze the nature of these associations and the physiognomy of the relative rites, trying to give a reading of the latter, on the basis of both the initiatory rituals typical of mafia organizations, as well as the ritual oaths characteristic of traditional African religions, and of their function of expressing allegiance to groups and leaders.

LE JARDIN SECRET DE L’ENFANT. L’importanza della menzogna nello sviluppo psicologico del bambino: analisi cross culturale del conflitto

di Chiara Capone

Nell’articolo s’indaga la natura multidimensionale della menzogna e più nello specifico quanto il suo sviluppo rappresenti uno strumento fondamentale nella crescita del bambino.

E’ stata condotta un’analisi dettagliata e ragionata della letteratura, al fine di mettere a confronto i diversi studi che hanno indagato e osservato quali siano i fattori che influenzano le diverse espressioni della menzogna, il suo significato e le sue funzioni nell’ambito dello sviluppo psicologico del bambino. In particolare si metteranno in luce gli effetti della menzogna e la correlazione con la dimensione del conflitto rispetto alla cultura di appartenenza.

The article examines the multidimensional nature of lying and more specifically how this development is a fundamental tool in the growth of the child. A detailed and reasoned analysis of the literature has been conducted in order to compare the different studies that have investigated and observed what are the factors influencing the different expressions of lying, what it means and their functions in the psychological development of the child. In particular, the effects of lying and the correlation with the dimension of conflict compares to the culture of belonging will be highlighted.

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