Rivista n. 39

Criminalità e psicopatologia. La sindrome da molestatore assillante

di Giovanna Palermo

– Il rapporto tra psicopatologia e criminalità può essere affrontato da diverse prospettive, ma l’autrice ha scelto di ridurre al minimo ogni sconfinamento di ordine giuridico, filosofico e antropologico per analizzare poi la figura dello stalker. In tale prospettiva si è proceduto, partendo dalla complessa storia della psicopatologia criminologica, ad analizzare l’evoluzione degli anni ‘50 e ‘60 per soffermarsi poi sullo specifico dello “molestatore assillante”. L’indagine criminologica  mira a cogliere le motivazioni di chi trasgredisce la legge, le cause di condotte a volte radicali e apparentemente incomprensibili, il significato che riveste il crimine nella biografia di una personalità criminale, travolta, a volte, dalla percezione di pericoli incontrollabili e imprevedibili che potenziano il turbamento psichico.

Nella storia della criminologia teorie diverse si sono confrontate con sistemi giuridici e culturali differenti. In particolare  l’approccio scientifico alla malattia, ed in particolare alla malattia mentale, nasce con la cultura greca, con l’abbandono del pensiero magico e le argomentazioni dell’umoralismo e l’allontanamento della malattia dall’universo del male. La presente analisi, pur consapevole della  ricchezza e vivacità della tradizione europea, sarà tendenzialmente circoscritta alla sola cultura italiana.

– The relationship between psychopathology and criminality can be approached from different perspectives, but the author has chosen to minimize any legal, philosophical and anthropological encroachment to then analyze the figure of the stalker. In this perspective she has proceeded, starting from the complex history of criminological psychopathology, to analyze the evolution of the 50s and 60s to then dwell on the specific of the “nagging molester”. The criminological investigation aims to grasp the motivations of those who break the law, the causes of conduct that is sometimes radical and seemingly incomprehensible, the meaning that crime plays in the biography of a criminal personality, at times overwhelmed by perception of uncontrollable and unpredictable dangers that enhance psychic disturbance.

In the history of criminology, different theories have been confronted with different legal and cultural systems. In particular the scientific approach to illness, and in particular to mental illness, is born with Greek culture, with the abandonment of magical thinking and the arguments of humoralism and the removal of illness from the universe of evil. The present analysis, although aware of the richness and liveliness of the European tradition, will tend to be limited only to Italian culture.

Tempestività e resilienza: l’esperienza dei piloti al servizio del business

di Francesca Castaldo e Mauro Gatti

– L’emergere della cyber-security sta delineando un sempre più forte avvicinamento tra interessi militari ed economici. Nell’era cibernetica le minacce sono più numerose e diversificate rispetto a quelle di una volta, richiedendo un mutamento a livello delle strategie da utilizzare. A livello organizzativo si assiste ad un notevole accorciamento del processo decisionale, per cui i decision maker si trovano sovente a dover prendere decisioni sotto stress, e quindi sub-ottimali, o addirittura ad impatto negativo, e ad intraprendere dei corsi d’azione non pianificati in risposta a determinati ed improvvisiattacchi, con conseguenze potenzialmente nefaste.Tutto ciò, nel mondo delle imprese, oltre che naturalmente in ambito Difesa, si traduce nell’ urgenza di acquisire – laddove non già possedute – le cosiddette “capacità dinamiche”. Traqueste, l’articolo si focalizza sulla tempestività;più in particolare, l’enfasi è posta sulla capacità di decidere ‘better and faster’rispetto al passato relativamente recente. Il lavoro si concentra, poi, sul legame tra tempestività e resilienza,soffermandosi sull’espe- rienza peculiare di un attore particolarmente resiliente, il pilota, e su come la sua esperienza possa essere messa al servizio del business, e non solo.

– The emergence of cybersecurity is shaping an ever-stronger approach between military and economic interests. In the cybernetic erathreats are more numerous and diversified than in the past, requiring a strategic change. At an organizational level, there is a noticeable shortening of the decision-making process, so that decision makers often find themselves in the conditions of taking decisions under stress, and therefore sub-optimal, or even with a negative impact, and to undertake unplanned courses of action in response to certain and sudden attacks, with potentially harmful consequences. All this, in business, as well as of course in Defence, translates into the urgent need to acquire – where not already possessed – the so-called “dynamic capabilities”.Among these, the article focuses on timeliness; more specifically, the emphasis is placed on the ability to decide ‘better and faster’ than in the relatively recent past. This paper thenfocuses on the link between timeliness and resilience, looking over the peculiar experience of a particularly resilient actor, the fighter pilot, and how this experience can be put at the service of the business, and beyond.

Il conflitto civile in El caballo rojo di Concha Alós

di Veronica Bernardini

– In Spagna, nei primi decenni del XX secolo, molte donne iniziano un lento cammino verso la consapevolezza della propria identità. Riescono ad accedere al mondo della letteratura, a scrivere e a pubblicare, a far sentire, in definitiva, anche la loro voce. Con lo scoppio della guerra civile, e l’istaurarsi della dittatura di Francisco Franco, il riconoscimento dei diritti per le donne subisce un freno e la scrittura femminile viene lasciata ai margini, considerata di poca importanza e valore dalla critica ufficiale. Negli ultimi decenni, tuttavia, i Women’s Studies hanno permesso di recuperare autrici e opere e di avviare una revisione del canone letterario, un canone ancora limitato dall’ottica maschile. Il presente articolo intende rivendicare la scrittrice, Concha Alós, una tra le tante voci femminili troppo spesso trascurate dalla critica letteraria.  L’articolo, inoltre, intende analizzare il dramma del conflitto attraverso il romanzo El caballo rojo, opera della stessa autrice; un’opera che rappresenta un’interessante testimonianza della memoria storica repubblicana della guerra civile.

– In Spain, in the early decades of the twentieth century, many women began a slow journey towards an awareness of their own identities. They managed to gain access the world of literature, writing and publishing their own works. With the outbreak of the civil war and the establishment of the dictatorship of Francisco Franco, the recognition of rights for women was curtailed and women’s writing was ignored by influential critics. In recent decades, however, Women’s Studies has been able to rediscover a number of women writers and their works, which has begun a revision of the literary canon, a canon still limited to a male perspective. This article aims to reclaim the work of one writer, Concha Alós, who is just one the many female voices that has been too often overlooked in literary criticism. The article also aims to analyze the drama of the central conflict in the novel El caballo rojo, a work that represents an interesting testimony of historical memory from the perspective of the republicans during the Spanish civil war.

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